Value investing in Nigeria
Active managers in Africa and frontier markets have to counter the perceived higher risk of investing in volatile markets prone to political and economic uncertainty. In response, most investors gravitate to growth strategies, pursuing markets or sectors with attractive GDP growth prospects and predictable policy makers. Inevitably, when investors flock to the preferred country or sector, the top-rated companies command a premium valuation, often justified as buying ‘growth at a reasonable price’.
In contrast, value investors hardly have compelling narratives to justify why they are seeking out the least popular markets and acting with conviction when loading up on beaten-down value stocks. The risk of appearing stupid increases as market prices are trending downwards and there is no shortage of ‘cheap for a reason’ arguments. Despite the rigorous analysis, a value manager’s judgment and conviction is tested when the strategy underperforms. The prospect of client withdrawals is a reality check.
The price you pay counts
Empirical data over long time periods and across multiple markets suggests that stock market returns aren’t correlated to economic growth prospects. What matters is the price you pay, or starting valuations. This is no different in Nigeria, currently the largest country weighting in the Allan Gray Africa ex-SA Equity and Bond Funds, which comprise together about 2% of the Allan Gray Balanced Fund.
President Olusegun Obasanjo’s election in 1999 marked a fundamental transition from military rule to democracy. Nigeria had experienced only 10 years of civilian rule from independence in 1960 to 1999. Since then, Nigeria’s relative political stability, combined with a boom in oil prices, fuelled 9.2% growth in GDP per capita compounded annually; whereas growth in South Africa was 3.2% and in the US it was 3.0%. Over the same 17-year period to 2016, Nigeria’s stock market returned 2.8% (in US dollars), whereas South Africa and the S&P 500 delivered 6.0% and 2.5% respectively, as shown below.
But the real story is the period between the bookends. The notable high volatility in Nigeria’s stock market has offered investors greater opportunities to generate superior returns – by patiently buying stocks that thrived when political or economic prospects appeared dim; and selling the popular stocks when other investors were overly optimistic.
Read the full story: How We Made It in Africa